"To meet the challenges of the cyberspace era -- including the rapid rate of change in technology, the growing cyber threat, and the need to integrate cyber with operations in other warfighting domains -- the U.S. Air Force (USAF) must find effective ways to organize, train, and equip its cyber forces. Cyber Practices: What Can the U.S. Air Force Learn from the Commercial Sector? identifies approaches to cyber organizational and workforce issues. Specifically, this report describes efforts to identify successful processes and practices from the commercial sector that might be applicable to USAF. To ascertain successful commercial practices, the authors took a twofold approach: a wide-ranging literature review and interviews with a carefully crafted set of commercial organizations, selected for their similarities to USAF and for their reputations of cyber excellence. Companies were identified to be similar to USAF in size, cyber functions performed, exposure to cyber threats, and operational environment. The authors found strong parallels in the commercial sector for Department of Defense information network operations and defensive cyber operations. Although none of the companies interviewed were as large as USAF or required to function in deployed and contested operating environments, the commercial practices described in the report are likely to be applicable to USAF and result in effectiveness and efficiency gains. The authors describe the basis for each practice, the benefits it conveys, and how it could be implemented by USAF."--Back cover.